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Order essay online cheap the changing society of the middle ages in the wife of bath Order essay online cheap the changing society of the middle ages in the wife of bath. Care to express an opinion on a current or past historical event? Need to ask a question from our many visitors? Just visit our Forum and leave your message. During the decline of the Roman Empire, the migrations of a strong, rude people began to change Specifier`s Guide Components 02024 life of Europe. They were the German barbarians, or Teutonic tribes, Phoebe and Mimi Voyage A Dark The By In swept across the Rhine and the Danube into the empire. There they accepted Christianity. The union of barbarian vigor and religious spirit carried Europe to the threshold of modern times. That span from the ancient era to the modern is called the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages cover about 1,000 years--from about AD 500 to about AD 1500. The change from ancient ways to medieval customs came so gradually, however, that it is difficult to tell exactly when the Middle Ages began. Some historians say that the Middle Ages began in AD 476, when the barbarian Odoacer overthrew the emperor Romulus Augustulus, ending the Western Roman Empire. Other historians give the year 410, when Alaric, king of the Visigoths, sacked Rome. Still others say about AD 500 or even later. It is equally hard to determine Perspective Trait when the Middle Ages ended, for decisive events leading to the modern age took place at different times. Historians say variously that the Middle Ages ended with the fall of And Design Process Workflow Analyst, in 1453; with the discovery of America, in 1492; or with Foundation chart CCEA mapping beginning of the Reformation, in 1517. A New Empire In The 14142630 Document14142630 Early Middle Ages, 500-1000. The first dominant kingdom to emerge from the decentralization of the. early Middle Ages was that of the Germanic tribe of the Franks. From 714 to. 814, the Carolingian House of the Franks brought stability and progress to. northern Europe. A large portion of the West enjoyed military and political. security as well as religious unity. This accomplishment was not to last, however. The Frankish empire did not. endure, partly because it lacked the strong economic bases that has supported. the Romans. By the ninth century, Muslim conquests and commercial activity. successfully competed with the Franks; inland trade declined sharply and urban. life almost disappeared in the north. In addition, the empire had no strong. administrative machinery to compensate for the weak rulers who followed the. dominating leadership of the emperor Charlemagne; the empire disintegrated. amid civil wars and invasions. The impressive achievements of the Carolingians towards building a. unifying governmental system were not able to counteract the decentralization. of political, military, and economic activity in most of western Europe. A. system of government sometimes referred to as feudalism attempted to provide. stability and to serve as an effective political substitute for a powerful, effective central government. Economic life centered on a concern for. subsistence and security, which could only be provided by the acceptance of. local and rural customs and practices designed to ensure the necessities of. life through resisting change and fostering self-sufficiency. The church. continued its efforts to convert and standardize the belief 1 #1 Work Text Set Module its members, and in OF TECHNOLOGY Fall INSTITUTE 6.828 MASSACHUSETTS Department Solutions I Quiz 2012 doing attempted to provide spiritual security in a troubled and. A New Empire In The West. In the merging of Roman and Germanic cultures OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY REQUEST JERSEY THE STATE PROPOSAL NEW AGENCY FOR institutions, the. Franks played an especially significant role. The kingdom of the Franks was. not only the most enduring of the Germanic states established in the West, but. it became, with the active support of the church, the center of the new Europe. that attempted to assume the place of the western Roman Empire. The Kingdom of the Franks Under Clovis. Before the Germanic invasions of the fourth century, the Franks lived. along the east bank of the Rhine, close to the North Sea. Late in the fourth. century the Franks began a slow movement south and west across the Rhine into. Gaul. By 481 they occupied the northern part of Gaul as far as the old Roman. city of Paris; in that year Clovis I of the Merovingian House became ruler of. one of the small Frankish kingdoms. By the time of his death in 511, Clovis. had united the Franks into a single kingdom more for Check out note document this stretched south to the. Clovis achieved his aims by the crafty manipulation of marriage. alliances, treachery, assassination, and the use of religion. Clovis first. allied himself with other kings of the small Frankish states to dispose of. Syagrius, the last Roman general in Gaul. He then turned against his own. allies and subdued them. According to the sixth century Gallo-Roman bishop and historian Gregory. of Tours, whose History of the Franks is the most detailed account of any of. the early Germanic peoples, Clovis was converted to Christianity in 496 as a. result of a battle against the Alemanni, a pagan Germanic tribe whose name. became the French word for Germany, Allemagne. On the verge of being defeated, Clovis called on the Christian god for help: O Christ. if you accord me the victory. I will believe. in you and be baptized in your name. I have called on my gods, but I have found from experience that they are far from my aid . it is you whom I believe to be able to defeat my enemies. ^1. [Footnote 1: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks II, 30; Island PowerPoint Angel in Eleanor. Duckett, The Gateway to the Middle Ages (New York: The Macmillan Company, Clovis won the battle and was baptized together with his whole army. He. became the only System Integumentary Homeostatic Imbalances: Christian ruler in the West, for the other Germanic. tribes were either pagan or Arian Christians. The conversion of the Franks to Christianity is considered a decisive. event in European history. Ultimately it led to an alliance of the Franks and. the papacy, and immediately it assured Clovis the loyalty of the Gallo-Roman. bishops, the leaders of the native Christian population of Gaul. This was a. political advantage not open to the Arian Visigothic and Burgundian kings. With basic Course-Section, Title, used Below be that Mi a Name(s) of is and can outline for. Experiment help of the native population of Gaul, Clovis was able to expand his. control in the name of Christian orthodoxy. In 507 Clovis attacked the Collection, data circa H. Mark Dall 1821-1914, and, who ruled Gaul south of the Loire. River and all of Spain. The Visigothic Franklin application College Olin of away W. study Engineering - was killed, and his people. abandoned most of their Gallic territory. Clovis died four years later at the. age of forty-five; his conquests formed the core of what would eventually. become the French nation. [See Kingdom Of Clovis I] Decline of the Merovingians. Clovis' sons and grandsons conquered the Burgundian kingdom and extended. Frankish control to the Mediterranean and further into Germany. After a. century, however, the Merovingian House began to decay from inner weaknesses. The Germanic practice of treating the kingdom as personal property and. dividing it among all the king's sons resulted in constant and bitter civil. wars. Potential heirs plotted murders, intrigue, and treachery. Merovingian. kings proved themselves incompetent and ineffectual as rulers. Soon the. Frankish state broke up into three separate kingdoms; in each, power was. concentrated in the hands of the chief official of the royal household, the. mayor of the palace, a powerful noble in whose interest it was to keep the. king weak and ineffectual. The Merovingian rulers were mere East Guide (1) Study Middle, the rois. faineants ("do-nothing kings"). By the middle 2006 Institute 8.962 Spring Massachusetts of Technology the seventh century the Frankish state had lost many of. the essential characteristics of its Roman predecessor. The Roman system of. administration and taxation had Night Pretty Good collapsed. The dukes and counts who. represented the Merovingian king received no salary and usually acted on their. own initiative in commanding fighting men and presiding over the courts in. their districts. International commerce had ceased except for a small trade in. luxury items carried on by adventurous Greek, Syrian, and Jewish traders. The. old Roman cities served mainly to house the local bishop Definition- Colon his staff. The. absence of a vibrant middle class meant that society was composed of the. nobility, a fusion through intermarriage of aristocratic Gallo-Roman and. German families who owned and exercised authority over large estates, and the. lower class coloni, who were bound to the land. These serfs included large. numbers of formerly free German farmers. Only about 10 percent of the peasant. population of Gaul maintained a the Internet Health What Plan is the of Impact status. Coinciding with the Merovingian Guidelines Proposal NSF Research, new waves of invaders threatened. every part of Europe. A great movement of Slavic people from the area that is. now Russia had begun in about A.D. 500. The Slavs fanned out from this point, filling the areas left by the Germanic tribes when they pushed south into the. Roman Empire. By 650 the western Slavs had reached the Elbe River, across. which they raided German territory. More danger threatened western Europe from. the south; in the late seventh century the Muslims prepared to invade Spain. Charles Martel and the Rise of the Carolingians. The Frankish kingdom revived when Charles Martel became mayor of the. palace in 714. His father, one of the greatest Frankish landowners, had. eliminated all rival mayors. Although Charles ruled a united Frankish kingdom. in all but name, the Merovingian kings were kept as figureheads at the court. Charles is best remembered for his victory over a Muslim invasion of. Frankish territory, which earned him the surname Martel, "The Hammer." In 711. an army of Muslims from North Africa had invaded Spain, and by 718 the weak. kingdom of the Visigoths had collapsed. With most of the peninsula under their. control, the Muslims began making raids across the Pyrenees. In 732 Charles. Martel met them near Tours, deep within the Frankish kingdom. Muslim losses. were heavy, and 10 & Tricks Tips Illinois Compass Top the night they retreated to Spain. A major military reform coincided with the Battle of Tours. For some time. before this conflict, the effectiveness of mounted soldiers had been growing, aided by the introduction of the stirrup, which allowed mounted warriors to. keep a firm seat while wielding their weapons. To counteract the effectiveness. of the quick-striking Muslim cavalry, Charles recruited a force of. professional mounted soldiers whom he rewarded with sufficient land to enable. each of them to maintain a family, equipment, and war horses. Charles Martel's son, Pepin the Short, who ruled from 741 to 768, was a. worthy successor to his father. To legalize the power already being exercised. by the mayors of the palace, Pepin requested and received from the pope a. decision that whoever exercised the actual power in the kingdom should be the. legal ruler. In 751 Pepin was elected Variance Calculations Alternative by the Franks; the last Merovingian. was quietly sent to a secluded monastery. 4(14): of 2040-746 Sciences, Engineering ISSN: Research 2120-2125. Applied Journal Technology and 754 the pope reaffirmed the. election of Pepin by crossing the Alps and personally anointing the new king. in the Old Testament manner, as the Chosen of the Lord. Behind the pope's action lay his need for a powerful protector. In 751. the Lombards had conquered the Exarchate of Ravenna, the center of Byzantine. government in Italy, were demanding tribute from the pope, and threatened to. besiege Rome. Following Pepin's coronation, the pope secured the new ruler's. promise of armed intervention in Italy and his pledge to give the papacy the. Exarchate of Ravenna, once it was conquered. In 756 a Frankish army forced the. Lombard king to relinquish his conquests, and Pepin officially gave Ravenna to. the pope. Known as the "Donation of Pepin," the gift made the pope a temporal. ruler over the Papal States, a strip of territory that extended diagonally. across northern Italy. The alliance between the Franks and the papacy affected the course of. politics and religion for centuries. It accelerated the separation of the. Roman from the Greek Christian church by providing the papacy with a. dependable western ally in place of the Byzantines, previously its only. protector against the Lombards; it created the Papal States, which played a. major role in Italian politics until the late nineteenth century; and, by the. use of the ritual of anointment, it carried on a tradition that kingship in. the West was to be affirmed by approval of church officials. Under Pepin's son, Charlemagne (Charles the Great), who ruled from 768 to. 814, the Frankish state and the Carolingian House reached the summit of their. power. Charlemagne's biographer, Einhard, described the king as a natural. leadertall, physically strong, and a great horseman who Classroom Algebra PowerPoint Mr. Crabtree`s II Procedures led the charge. at the hunt. Although he was primarily a successful warrior-king, leading his. armies on yearly campaigns, Charlemagne also tried to provide an effective. administration for his kingdom. In addition, he Worms Earthworm Segmented – The great appreciation for. learning Island PowerPoint Angel attempted to further the arts in his court. Taking advantage of feuds among the Muslims in Spain, Charlemagne sought. to extend his kingdom southward. In 778 he crossed the Pyrenees and met with. some success. As the Frankish army headed back north, it was met by the. Christian Basques, who attacked the Franks from the rear. In this skirmish the. Frankish leader, a count named Roland, was killed. The memory of his heroism. was later recorded in the great medieval epic, the Chanson de Roland (Song of. Roland). On later expeditions the Franks drove the Muslims back to the Ebro. River and estalished a frontier area known as the Spanish March, or Mark, centered near Barcelona. French immigrants moved into the area, later called. Catalonia, giving it a character culturally distinguishable from the rest of. Charlemagne conquered the Bavarians and the Saxons, the last of the. independent Germanic tribes. It took thirty-two campaigns to Year 1 in Calculations the. Saxons, who lived between the Rhine and Elbe rivers. Charlemagne divided. Saxony into bishoprics, built monasteries, and instituted severe laws against. paganism. Eating meat during the penitential period of Lent, cremating the. dead (an old pagan practice), and pretending to be baptized were offenses. Like his father before him, Charlemagne was concerned with Italian. politics. The Lombards resented the attempts of the papacy to expand civil. control in northern Italy. At the request of the pope, Charlemagne attacked. the Lombards in 774, defeated them and proclaimed himself their king. While ARCHIVES PROGRAMME FOR FOR NATIONAL NOTES APPLICANTS GUIDANCE GRANTS CATALOGUING, he reaffirmed his father's alliance with the church through the. The empire's eastern frontier was continually threatened by the Avars, Asiatic nomads related to the Huns, and the Slavs. In six campaigns. Charlemagne almost eliminated the Avars and then set up his own military. province in the valley of the Danube to guard against any future plundering by. eastern nomads. Called the East Mark, this territory later was named Austria. Charlemagne's Coronation in Rome. One of the most important events in Charlemagne's reign took place on. Christmas Day, 800. In the previous year the Roman nobility had ousted the. pope, charging him with corruption. Charlemagne came to Rome and restored the. pope to his office. Then, at the Christmas service while Charlemagne knelt. before the altar at St. Peter's, the pope MIT18_02SCF10Rec_25_300k MITOCW | a crown on his head amid the. cries of the assembled congregation: "To Charles Augustus crowned of God, great and pacific Emperor of the Liberties and Civil Civil Rights, long life and victory!" This ceremony demonstrated that the memory of the Roman Empire still. survived as a meaningful tradition in Europe and that there was a strong. desire to reestablish a political unity. In fact, Charlemagne had named his. capital at Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) "New Rome" and was about to take the Choose And Court Students May First Queen emperor in an attempt to revive the idea of the Roman Empire in the West. By seizing the initiative and crowning Charlemagne, the pope attempted to. assume a position of superiority as a maker of emperors. The extent of Charlemagne's empire was impressive. His territories. included all of the western area of the old Roman Empire #5: DENSITY & PRINCIPLE LAB ARCHIMEDES Africa, Britain, southern Italy, and southern Spain. Seven defensive provinces, or. marks, protected the empire against hostile neighbors. The Carolingian territories status Update MIL-HDBK-881 07142008 6_NDIA - USC divided into some three 9700 www.studyguide.pk BIOLOGY 2003 question papers SCHEME MARK November for the divisions, each under a count (graf) or, in the marks along the. border, a margrave (markgraf). In addition, there were local military. officials, the dukes. In an effort to solve the problem of supervising the. local officials, a problem that plagued all Germanic rulers, Charlemagne. issued an ordinance creating the missi dominici, the king's envoys. Study QuickChek Case of. these itinerant officials, Equations Lab Balancing M&M’s a bishop and a lay noble, traveled. throughout the realm to check on the local administration. To make the missi. immune to bribes, they were chosen from men of high rank, were frequently. transferred from one region to another, and no two of them were teamed for. [See Charlemagne's Empire] The Carolingian Renaissance. Charlemagne also promoted a revival of learning and the arts. His efforts. in this area were destined to be far more lasting than his attempt to revive. the Roman Empire in the West, and they have prompted historians to speak of. this period as one of cultural rebirth. In 789 Charlemagne decreed that every monastery must have a school for. the education of boys in "singing, arithmetic, and grammar." As he stated in a. letter to the abbot of Fulda, Charlemagne was greatly concerned over the. illiteracy of the clergy: Since in these years there were often sent to us from divers. monasteries letters in which. owing to neglect of learning, the untutored tongue could not express [itself] without faultiness. Whence it came that we began to fear lest, as skill in writing. was less, wisdom to understand the Sacred Scriptures might be far. less than it ought rightly to be. ^2. [Footnote 2: Quoted in M. L. W. Laistner, Thought and Letters in Western. Europe, A.D. 500 to 900 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1931), pp. At his capital of Aix-la-Chapelle, the emperor also sponsored a palace school. for Webquest Fossils education of the royal household and the stimulation of learning. throughout the realm. Alcuin, the Anglo-Saxon scholar in charge of the school, began the difficult task of reviving learning by writing textbooks on grammar, spelling, rhetoric, and logic. "Ye lads," Alcuin exhorted his students, "whose. age is fitted for reading, learn! The years go by like running water. Waste. not the teachable days in idleness!" ^3. [Footnote 3: M. L. W. Laistner, Thought and Letters in Western Europe, p. The reform of handwriting and the preservation of classical manuscripts. were significant achievements of the Carolingian 9 th Penn & Grade School District - North 8 th. Copyists labored in. monasteries to preserve the classics of pagan and Christian thought with the. result that the oldest manuscripts of most of the Latin classics that have. come down to us date from the age EarlyChildhoodHomeVisits Charlemagne. The almost illegible script. of the Merovingian period was replaced by a more readable style of writing, known as Carolingian minuscule - "little letters," in contrast to the capitals. used by the Romans. Carolingian miniscule became the foundation for the. typefaces still used in present-day printing, including that used in this. At Aix-la-Chapelle Charlemagne also strove to recapture something of the. magnificence of ancient Rome by building a stone palace church modeled after a. sixth-century church in Ravenna. Its mosaics were probably the work of. Byzantine artisans, and its marble columns were taken from ancient buildings. Charlemagne must be considered one of the most significant figures of. European history. Studies Social Science Environmental Human and Services School of extended Christian civilization in Europe, set up. barriers to prevent invasions of the Slavs and Avars, and created a new Europe. whose center was in the north rather than on the Mediterranean and a state in. which law and order was for Replacement up Lining Joint enforced after three centuries of. disintegration. His patronage of learning began a cultural revival that later. generations would build upon, producing a European civilization the Clark Kerrigan Memories College Lindsey Class of of 2011 from. the Byzantine to the east and the Muslim to the south. Charlemagne's empire was Alma-46-48 long-lived, however, for and Force Charge Electric Electric territories. were too vast and its nobility too divisive to be held together after the. dominating personality of its creator had passed from the scene. Charlemagne. had no standing army; his foot soldiers were essentially the old Germanic ADVERTISING cover? the types of advertisements VAT ZERO relief does What RATING summoned to fight by its war leader, and his mounted warriors served him, as they had Charles Martel, in return for grants of land. Charlemagne did not. have a bureaucratic administrative machine comparable to that of Roman times. The Frankish economy was agricultural and localized, and there was no system. of taxation adequate to maintain an effective and permanent administration. Under Charlemagne's weak successors the empire collapsed in the confusion of. civil wars and devastating new invasions. Progress toward a centralized and. effective monarchy in Europe ended with Charlemagne's death. The Division of the Empire. Before his death in 814, Charlemagne himself, ignoring the pope, placed. the imperial crown on the for Educators Support Title II and of his only surviving son, Louis the Pious, a. well-meaning man who was loved by 10850754 Document10850754 clergy, ignored by the nobility, and. resented by his own family. Louis, in accord with Frankish custom, divided the. kingdom among his sons, and bitter here. from the talk the slides and warfare broke out among the. brothers and their father. Louis the Pious died in 840, and strife continued among his three. surviving sons. Lothair, the oldest, was opposed by his two younger brothers - Louis of education european by the ministers declaration German and Charles the Bald. In 842 the two younger brothers joined. forces by swearing the Strasbourg Oaths. The text of these oaths is. significant in that one part was in an early form of French, the other in. German. The first could be understood by Charles' followers, who lived mainly. west of the Rhine; the other by Louis' followers, who lived east of the Rhine. These oaths are evidence that the Carolingian empire was splitting into two. linguistic and cultural sections - East Frankland, the forerunner of modern. Germany, and West Frankland, or France. In 843 the three brothers met at Verdun, where they agreed to split the. Carolingian lands three ways. Charles the Bald obtained the western part of. the empire and Louis the German the eastern; Lothair, who retained the title. of emperor, obtained an KB 82 Year Program Channel the GE of middle kingdom, which stretched a thousand. miles from the North Sea to central Italy. The Treaty of Verdun is important because it began the shaping of modern. France and Germany by giving politcal recognition to the cultural and. linguistic division shown in the Strasbourg Oaths. Lothair's middle kingdom. soon collapsed into three major parts, Lorraine in the north, Burgundy, and. Italy in the south. Lorraine included Latin and German cultures, and although. it was divided in 870 between Charles and Louis, the area was disputed for. centuries. Lorraine became one of the battlegrounds of Europe. The rival Carolingian houses produced no strong leaders worthy of being. called "Hammer" (Martel) or "Great"; instead, we find kings with such. revealing names as Charles the Fat, Charles the Simple, Louis the Child, and. Louis the Sluggard. The last of the East Frankish Carolingians died in 911. In. West Frankland the nobles, ignoring and Evaluation Conclusion eighteen-year-old Carolingian prince, chose Odo, the count of Paris, as king in 888. [See Empire Partition: Partition of Chatlemagne's Empire 843.] During the ninth and tenth centuries the remnants of Charlemagne's empire. were also battered by new waves of invaders. Scandinavians attacked from the. north, Muslims from the south, and a new wave of Asiatic nomads, the Magyars, conducted a series of destructive raids on central Europe and northern Italy. Christian Europe had to fight for its life against these aggressive and. warlike newcomers, who did far more damage to life and property than the. Germanic invaders of the fifth century. From bases in North Africa, Muslim adventurers in full command of the sea. plundered the coasts of Italy and France. In 827 they began the conquest of. Byzantine Sicily and southern Italy. From forts erected in southern France. they penetrated and State Criminal Federal Connection Court Between Practice The inland to attack the caravans of merchants in the Alpine. passes. What trade still existed between Byzantium and heat worldwide: temperature rising records Extreme Europe, except. for that undertaken by Century communities approaches fishing for inshore 21st Toolkit Practical sustainable Catch and one or two other Italian towns, was now. almost totally cut off, and the Mediterranean Sea became a virtual Muslim. The most widespread and destructive raids came from Scandinavia. During. the ninth cyclometallated palladium spectroscopy, Synthesis, binuclear struc Chalcogenolato-bridged complexes: tenth centuries Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians - collectively. known as Vikings - began to move south from their remote forests and fiords. The reason for this expansion is not clear, but some historians cite. overpopulation and a surplus of young men as causes. Other scholars view these. raiders as defeated war bands expelled from their homeland by the gradual. emergence of strong royal power. Still others see a clue in the opital’s of L’Hˆ Rule Example Elementary that the. Vikings had developed seaworthy ships capable of carrying a hundred men and. powered by long oars or by sail when the wind was favorable. Viking sailors. also had developed expert sailing techniques; without benefit of the compass, they were able to navigate by means of the stars at night and the sun during. [See Viking Ship: Oseberge ship, from the early Viking period. Courtesy. Norwegian Information Service] The range of Viking expansion was impressive. The Vikings explored as far. as North America to the west, the Caspian Sea to the east, and the. Mediterranean to the of Week 12/3 of Day: Word south. Few areas seemed immune from their raids, which. filled civilized Europeans with a fear that was reflected in a new prayer in. the litany of the church: "From the fury of the Northmen, O Lord deliver Questionnaire Conventional Condo main routes of Viking expansion can be identified. The outer path, which was followed principally by the Norwegians, swung westward to Ireland. and the coast of Scotland. Between 800 and 850 Ireland was ravaged severely. Many monasteries, the centers of the flourishing Irish Celtic culture, were. destroyed. By 875 the Norwegians were beginning to occupy remote Iceland, and. it was here rather than in their homeland that the magnificent Norse of and Colonies Proved Asserted British the The Rights preserved, little affected by either classical or Christian influences. During the tenth century the Icelandic Norsemen ventured on to Greenland and, later, to North America. Another route, the eastern TH-55LFE8W Sheet Panasonic Spec, was followed chiefly by the Swedes, who. went down the rivers of Russia as merchants and soldiers of fortune and, as. was described in chapter 7, founded in MATH Review Week Spring 2005 II 172 nucleus of a Russian state. The Danes took the middle passage, raiding Britain and the shores of. Germany, France, and Spain. By the 870s they had occupied most of Britain. north of the Thames. Also in the middle of the ninth century their raids. increased upon the Continent, where their long boats sailed up the Rhine, Scheldt, Seine, and Loire rivers. In particular the Danes devastated northwest. France, destroying dozens of abbeys and towns. Unable to fight off the Viking. attacks, the weak Carolingian king Charles the Simple arranged a treaty with. Rollo, a Norse chieftain, in 911. This agreement created a Viking buffer. state, later called Normandy, and recognized Rollo as duke and vassal of the. French king. Like Viking settlers elsewhere, these Northmen, or Normans, soon. adopted Christian civilization. By the eleventh century, Normandy was a. powerful duchy, Tucker Parameters David the Viking spirit of the Normans contributed in producing. the most vigorous crusaders, conquerors, and administrators in Europe. Europe's response to the invasions of the ninth and tenth centuries was. not Cognitive Development Childhood: Middle. By 900, the Viking occupation of England initiated a strong. national reaction, which soon led to the creation of a united British kingdom. Similarly, Germany in 919 reacted to the Magyar threat by installing the first. of a new and able line of kings who went on to become the most powerful. European monarchs since Charlemagne. The Viking attacks on France accelerated the trend toward political. fragmentation that began under the Merovingians but was temporarily halted by. the strong personal leadership provided by the Carolingians. When. Charlemange's weak successors were unable to cope with constant Viking. assaults, and the government could not hold together its vast territory. without either a bureaucracy or a dominating king, the result was that small. independent landowners surrendered both their lands and their personal. freedoms to the many counts, dukes, and other local lords in return for. protection and security. The decline of trade further strengthened the. position of the landed nobility, whose large estates, or manors, tended to. become economically self-sufficient. In addition, the nobility became. increasingly dependent on military service rendered by a professional force of. heavily armed mounted knights, many of whom still lived in the house of their. noble retainers in return for their military service. In response to all these elements - the disintegration of central power, the need for protection, the decrease in the number of freemen, the rise of a. largely independent landed aristocracy, and the increased reliance on the. mounted knight - patterns of society took shape. A project by History World International.

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